GCSE Chemistry C4 (OCR B722): Periodic Table

Year 11 revision topics

C4a Atomic structure
  • Know that an atom has a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
  • Know that a nucleus is positively charged, an electron is negatively charged and an atom is neutral.
  • Understand that atoms have a very small mass and a very small size.
  • Be able to deduce the numbers of protons, electrons and neutrons from atomic numbers and mass numbers.
  • Be able to identify the atomic number of an element or vice versa by using a periodic table.
  • Know that atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.
  • Know that mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
  • Be able to identify elements and numbers of atoms of each element from formulae.
  • Be able to explain why a substance is an element or a compound given its formula.
  • Be able to draw electronic structures given atomic numbers.
  • Be able to deduce the number of occupied shells or the number of electrons from the electronic structure of an element.
  1. Be able to describe the main stages in the development of atomic structure illustrating the provisional nature of evidence:
    • Dalton's atomic theory (detail not required)
    • J.J. Thomson (discovery of the electron)
    • Rutherford (nuclear atom)
    • Bohr (electron orbits).
  • Know that the nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.
  1. Know the relative charge and relative mass of an electron, a proton and a neutron:
    • electron charge -1 and mass 0.0005 (~zero relatively)
    • proton charge +1 and mass 1
    • neutron charge 0 and mass 1
  • Be able to explain why an atom is neutral in terms of its sub- atomic particles.(HT)
  • Understand that atoms have a radius of about 10-10m and a mass of about 10-23g.(HT)
  • Be able to describe isotopes as varieties of an element that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
  1. Be able to deduce the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in a particle given its atomic number and mass number:
    • using data in a table
    • using the conventional symbolism eg carbon-12 or 12C6
  1. Be able to deduce the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in a charged particle given its atomic number, mass number and the charge on the particle:(HT)
    • using data in a table
    • using the conventional symbolism eg carbon-12 or 12C6
  • Be able to identify isotopes from data about the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in particles.(HT)
  • Be able to describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.
  • Be able to explain how the identity of an element can be deduced from its electronic structure.
  • Be able to deduce the electronic structure of the first 20 elements in the periodic table eg calcium is 2.8.8.2(HT)
  1. Be able to describe Dalton's atomic theory and how the work of J.J. Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr contributed to the development of the theory of atomic structure:
    • the theory changed as new evidence was found
    • science explanations are provisional but more convincing when predictions are later confirmed.
  1. Be able to explain the significance of the work of Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr in the development of the theory of atomic structure:(HT)
    • unexpected results (eg Geiger and Marsden's experiment) led to the theory of a nuclear atom.
C4b Ionic Bonding
  • Know that an ion is a charged atom or group of atoms.
  • Be able to recognise an ion, an atom and a molecule from given formulae.
  • Know and compare the electrical conductivity of sodium chloride in solid, molten liquid and solution.
  • Compare the melting points of sodium chloride and magnesium oxide.
  • Know and understand that atoms with an outer shell of 8 electrons have a stable electronic structure.
  • Be able to explain how and why metal atoms form positive ions.
  • Be able to explain how and why non-metal atoms form negative ions.
  • Understand that, in ionic bonding, a metal and non-metal combine by transferring electrons to form positive ions and negative ions which then attract one another.
  • Be able to deduce the formula of an ionic compound from the formula of the positive and negative ions.
  • Be able to draw dot and cross diagrams to model ionic bonding.(HT)
  • Be able to explain, using the 'dot and cross' model, the ionic bonding in simple binary compounds.(HT)
  • Know that sodium chloride solution conducts electricity.
    • Know that magnesium oxide and sodium chloride conduct electricity when molten.
    • Be able to describe the structure of sodium chloride or magnesium oxide as a giant ionic lattice in which positive ions are strongly attracted to negative ions.
  • Be able to explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why the melting point of sodium chloride is lower than that of magnesium oxide.(HT)
  1. Be able to explain, in terms of structure and bonding, some of the physical properties of sodium chloride:(HT)
    • high melting points
    • electrical conductivity of solid, molten liquid and solution.
  • Be able to predict and explain the properties of substances that have a giant ionic structure(HT)
C4c Periodic Table and covalent bonds
  1. Know that there are two types of bonding:
    • ionic bonding between metals and non-metals
    • covalent bonding between non-metals.
  • Know that carbon dioxide and water do not conduct electricity.
  • Be able to deduce, using a periodic table, elements that are in the same group.
  • Be able to describe a group of elements as all the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table and that the elements have similar chemical properties
  • Be able to deduce, using a periodic table, elements that are in the same period.
  • Be able to describe a period of elements as all the elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.
  1. Be able to describe the main stages in the development of the classification of elements:
    • Dobereiner
    • Newlands
    • Mendeleev
  • Understand that classification of elements was provisional, based on evidence gathered at the time.
  • Know that non-metals combine together by sharing electron pairs and this is called covalent bonding.
  • Be able to explain, using the 'dot and cross' model, the covalent bonding in simple binary compounds or molecules containing single and double covalent bonds.(HT)
  • Be able to describe carbon dioxide and water as simple molecules with weak intermolecular forces between molecules
  1. Be able to explain, in terms of structure and bonding, some of the physical properties of carbon dioxide and water:(HT)
    • low melting points
    • do not conduct electricity.
  • Be able to predict and explain the properties of substances that have a simple molecular structure.(HT)
  • Know that the group number is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell.
  • Be able to deduce the group to which an element belongs from its electronic structure (limited to the s and p blocks).
  • Know that the period to which the element belongs corresponds to the number of occupied shells in the electronic structure.
  • Be able to deduce the period to which the element belongs from its electronic structure.
  • Be able to describe the evidence or observations that caused Newlands and Mendeleev to develop new models of periodic classification of elements.
  1. Be able to explain how further evidence confirmed Mendeleev's ideas about the periodic table:(HT)
    • confirmation of his predictions about unknown elements
    • how investigations on atomic structure (mass number and electronic structure) agreed with his ideas.
C2d Group 1 elements
  • Be able to explain why the Group 1 elements are known as the alkali metals.
  • Be able to explain why Group 1 elements are stored under oil.
  1. Be able to describe the reaction of lithium, sodium and potassium with water:
    • hydrogen is formed
    • an alkali is formed which is the hydroxide of the metal
    • the reactivity with water increases down Group 1
    • potassium gives a lilac flame.
  1. Be able to construct the word equation for the reaction of a Group 1 element with water.
    • metal + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen
  • Recognise sodium, lithium and potassium as Group 1 elements.
  • Know the flame test colours for lithium, sodium and potassium compounds.
  • Be able to interpret information about flame tests to deduce the alkali metal present from flame colours.
  • Be able to predict the properties of Group 1 elements rubidium and/or caesium with water.
  1. Be able to construct the balanced symbol equation for the reaction of a Group 1 element with water (given all or some formulae)
    • eg: 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
  1. Construct the balanced symbol equation for the reaction of a Group 1 element with water (formulae not given)(HT)
    • eg: 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
  • Be able to predict the physical properties of rubidium and/or caesium given information about the other Group 1 elements.(HT)
  • Be able to explain why Group 1 elements have similar properties.
  • Be able to explain why Group 1 elements have similar properties, in terms of forming positive ions with stable electronic structures.(HT)
  • Be able to construct a balanced symbol equation to show the formation of an ion of a Group 1 element from its atom.(HT)
  • Be able to explain, in terms of electron loss, the trend in reactivity of the Group 1 elements with water.(HT)
  • Know the loss of electrons as oxidation.(HT)
  • Be able to explain why a process is oxidation from its ionic equation.(HT)
  1. Be able to describe how to use a flame test to identify the presence of lithium, sodium and potassium compounds:
    • use of moistened flame test wire
    • flame test wire dipped into solid sample
    • flame test wire put into blue Bunsen flame
    • colours of the flames
C4e Group 7 elements
  • Know that the Group 7 elements are known as the halogens.
  • Recognise fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine as Group 7 elements.
  1. Be able to describe the uses of some Group 7 elements:
    • chlorine is used to sterilise water
    • chlorine is used to make pesticides and plastics
    • iodine is used to sterilise wounds.
  • Know that Group 7 elements react vigorously with Group 1 elements.
  • Be able to construct the word equation for the reaction between a Group 1 element and a Group 7 element (product given).
  • Know that the reactivity of the Group 7 elements decreases down the group.
  • Be able to construct the word equation for the reaction between a Group 7 element and a metal halide (reactants and products given).
  1. Be able to describe the physical appearance of the Group 7 elements at room temperature:
    • chlorine is a green gas
    • bromine is an orange liquid
    • iodine is a grey solid.
    • displacement reactions.
  1. Be able to predict the properties of fluorine or astatine given the properties of the other Group 7 elements eg:(HT)
    • physical properties
    • melting point
    • boiling point
    • displacement reactions
  • Be able to identify the metal halide formed when a Group 1
  • Be able to construct the balanced symbol equation for the element reacts with a Group 7 element. reaction of a Group 1 element with a Group 7 element
  • Be able to construct the word equation for the reaction between (formulae not given). a Group 1 element and a Group 7 element (product not given).
  • Be able to construct the balanced symbol equation for the reaction of a Group 1 element with a Group 7 element (some or all formulae given).(HT)
  1. Be able to describe the displacement reactions of Group 7 elements with solutions of metal halides:
    • chlorine displaces bromides and iodides
    • bromine displaces iodides.
  • Be able to construct the word equation for the reaction between a Group 7 element and a metal halide (not all reactants and products given).
  • Be able to construct balanced symbol equations for the reactions between Group 7 elements and metal halides (some or all formulae given).
  • Be able to construct balanced symbol equations for the reactions between Group 7 elements and metal halides (formulae not given).(HT)
  • Be able to predict the feasibility of displacement reactions eg will bromine react with sodium astatide solution.(HT)
  • Be able to explain why Group 7 elements have similar properties.
  • Be able to explain why Group 7 elements have similar properties, in terms of forming negative ions with stable electronic structures.(HT)
  • Be able to construct an equation to show the formation of a halide ion from a halogen molecule.(HT)
  • Be able to explain, in terms of electron gain, the trend in reactivity of the Group 7 elements.(HT)
  • Know the gain of electrons as reduction.(HT)
  • Be able to explain why a process is reduction from its ionic equation.(HT)
C2f transition elements
  • Be able to identify whether an element is a transition element from its position in the periodic table.
  • Recognise that all transition elements are metals and have typical metallic properties.
  • Be able to deduce the name or symbol of a transition element using the periodic table.
  • Know that copper and iron are transition elements.
  • Be able to describe thermal decomposition as a reaction in which a substance is broken down into at least two other substances by heat.
  • Be able to construct word equations for thermal decomposition reactions (all reactants and products given).
  • Know that the test for carbon dioxide is that it turns limewater milky.
  • Be able to describe precipitation as a reaction between solutions that makes an insoluble solid.
  1. Know that compounds of transition elements are often coloured:
    • copper compounds are often blue
    • iron(II) compounds are often light green
    • iron(III) compounds are often orange/brown.
  1. Know that transition elements and their compounds are often used as catalysts:
    • iron in the Haber process
    • nickel in the manufacture of margarine.
  1. Be able to describe the thermal decomposition of carbonates of transition elements including :
    • FeCO3, CuCO3, MnCO3 and ZnCO3:
    • metal oxide and carbon dioxide formed
    • word equations (not all products given)
    • colour change occurs (colours not needed).
  • Be able to construct balanced symbol equations for the reactions between Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ with OH- (without state symbols) given the formulae of the ions(HT)
  1. Be able to construct the balanced symbol equations for the thermal decomposition of:(HT)
    • FeCO3
    • CuCO3
    • MnCO3
    • ZnCO3
  1. Be able to describe the use of sodium hydroxide solution to identify the presence of transition metal ions in solution:
    • Cu2+ gives a blue solid
    • Fe2+ gives a grey/green solid
    • Fe3+ gives an orange/brown solid
    • solids formed in this way are called precipitates.
C4g Metal structure and properties
  • Be able to explain why iron is used to make cars and bridges.
  • Be able to explain why copper is used to make electrical wiring.
  1. Know the typical physical properties of metals:
    • lustrous, hard and high density
    • high tensile strength
    • high melting and boiling points
    • good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Be able to interpret data about the properties of metals eg hardness, density and electrical conductivity.
  • Be able to explain why metals are suited to a given use (data will be provided).
  • Be able to suggest properties needed by a metal for a particular given use eg saucepan bases need to be good conductors of heat.
  • Recognise that the particles in a metal are held together by metallic bonds.
  • Know that at low temperatures some metals can be superconductors.
  • Be able to explain why metals are suited to a given use (data will be provided).
  • Understand that metals have high melting points and boiling points due to strong metallic bonds.
  • Be able to describe how metals conduct electricity.
  • Be able to describe metallic bonding as the strong attraction between a sea of delocalised electrons and close packed positive metal ions.(HT)
  1. Be able to explain, in terms of their structure, why metals have:(HT)
    • high melting points and boiling points
    • conduct electricity.
  • Be able to describe what is meant by the term superconductor.
  1. Be able to describe the potential benefits of superconductors:
    • loss free power transmission
    • super-fast electronic circuits
    • powerful electromagnets.
  • Be able to explain some of the drawbacks of superconductors.(HT)
C4h Purifying and testing water
  • Be able to interpret simple data about water resources in the United Kingdom (no Knowledge is expected).
  1. Know different types of water resources found in the United Kingdom:
    • lakes
    • rivers
    • aquifers
    • reservoirs.
  • Be able to explain why water is an important resource for many important industrial chemical processes.
  1. Know some of the pollutants that may be found in domestic water supplies:
    • nitrate residues
    • lead compounds
    • pesticide residues.
  • Be able to describe the purification of domestic water.
  1. Know the types of substances present in water before it is purified:
    • dissolved salts and minerals
    • microbes
    • pollutants
    • insoluble materials.
  • Know that chlorination kills microbes in water.
  • Know that barium chloride solution is used to test for sulfate ions and gives a white precipitate.
  1. Know that silver nitrate solution is used to test for halide ions:
    • chloride ions give a white precipitate
    • bromide ions give a cream precipitate
    • iodide ions give a pale yellow precipitate.
  • Be able to construct word equations for the reactions of barium chloride with sulfates and silver nitrate with halides (all reactants and products given).
  • Be able to interpret data about water resources in the United Kingdom (no recall is expected).
  • Be able to explain why it is important to conserve water.
  1. Be able to explain why drinking water may contain some of the pollutants listed below:
    • nitrates
    • lead compounds
    • pesticides
  • Be able to describe the water purification process to include filtration, sedimentation and chlorination.
  • Be able to explain why some soluble substances are not removed from water during purification.(HT)
  • Be able to explain the disadvantages of using distillation of sea water to make large quantities of fresh water.(HT)
  • Be able to interpret data about the testing of water with aqueous silver nitrate and barium chloride solutions.
  • Be able to construct word equations for the reactions of barium chloride with sulfates and silver nitrate with halides (not all reactants and products given).
  • Understand that the reactions of barium chloride with sulfates and silver nitrate with halides are examples of precipitation reactions.
  • Be able to construct balanced symbol equations for the reactions of barium chloride with sulfates and silver nitrate with halides given the appropriate formulae.(HT)

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