GCSE Chemistry C3 (OCR B721): Chemical Economics

Year 11 additional science revision

C3a Rate of reaction (1)
  1. Recognise that some reactions can be fast and different rates of reaction. others very slow e.g.
    • rusting is a slow reaction
    • burning and explosions are very fast reactions.
  1. Label the laboratory apparatus needed to measure the rate of reaction producing a gas:
    • gas syringe
    • flask
  • Plot experimental results involving gas volumes or mass loss on a graph.
  • Plot experimental results involving reaction times on a graph.
  1. Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.
  • Explain why a reaction stops.
  • Understand that the rate of a reaction measures how much product is formed in a fixed time period.
  1. Understand common units for the rate of reaction:
    • g/s or g/min eg in a mass loss data gathering experiment
    • cm3/s or cm3/min eg in a gas production data gathering experiment
  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time eg comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.
  1. Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time for example:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph including determining units
    • extrapolation
    • interpolation.
  • Recognise and use the idea that the amount of product formed is directly proportional to the amount of limiting reactant used.
  • Know that the limiting reactant is the reactant not in excess that is all used up at the end of the reaction.
  • Explain, in terms of reacting particles, why the amount of product formed is directly proportional to the amount of limiting reactant used.(HL)
C3b Rate of Reaction (2)
  • Recognise that chemical reaction takes place when particles collide.
  • Describe the effect of changing temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the effect of changing the concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the effect of changing the pressure on the rate of a chemical reaction of gases.
  1. Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature, concentration and pressure on the rate of reaction for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.
  • Understand that the rate of reaction depends on the number of collisions between reacting particles.
  1. Understand that the rate of reaction depends on the:(HL)
    • collision frequency of reacting particles
    • energy transferred during the collision (whether the collision is successful or effective)
.
  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in temperature change the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in temperature change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)
  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in concentration change the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in concentration change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)
  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in pressure change the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in pressure change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)
  1. Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of reaction for example:
    • deciding when a reaction has finished,
    • comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.
  1. Draw sketch graphs to show the effect of changing temperature, concentration or pressure on:
    • rate of reaction,
    • amount of product formed in a reaction.
  1. Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of reaction for example:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph,
    • extrapolation,
    • interpolation.
C3c Rate of Reaction (3)
  • Know that the rate of a reaction can be increased by the addition of a catalyst.
  • Know that the rate of a reaction can be increased by using powdered reactant rather than a lump (or vice versa).
  • Describe an explosion as a very fast reaction which releases a large volume of gaseous products.
  1. Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction, for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.
  • Describe a catalyst as a substance which changes the rate of reaction and is unchanged at the end of the reaction.
  • Understand why only a small amount of a catalyst is needed to catalyse large amounts of reactants and that a catalyst is specific to a particular reaction.
  • Explain, in terms of reacting particles and surface area, the difference in rate of reaction between a lump and powdered reactant.
  • Explain, in terms of collisions between reacting particles, the difference in rate of reaction between a lump and powdered reactant.(HL)
  • Explain the dangers of fine combustible powders in factories (eg custard powder, flour or sulfur).
  1. Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction:
    • deciding when a reaction has finished,
    • comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.
  1. Draw sketch graphs to show the effect of changing surface area and the addition of catalyst
    • rate of reaction
    • amount of product formed in a reaction.
  1. Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written forma about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph
    • extrapolation
    • interpolation
C2d Reacting masses
  • Calculate the relative formula mass of a substance from its formula (no brackets) given the appropriate relative atomic masses.
  • Understand that the total mass of reactants at the start of a reaction is equal to the total mass of products made and that this is called the principle of conservation of mass 'law of conservation of mass).
  1. Be able to use the principle of conservation of mass to calculate mass of reactant or product for example:
    • a) mass of gaseous product formed during decomposition
    • b) mass of oxygen that reacts with a known mass of magnesium to make magnesium oxide.
  • Use simple ratios to calculate reacting masses and product masses given the mass of a reactant and a product
  • Calculate the relative formula mass of a substance from its formula (with brackets) given appropriate relative atomic masses.
  • Be able to use provided relative formula masses and a symbol equation (1:1 molar ratio) to show that mass is conserved during a reaction.
  • Explain why mass is conserved in chemical reactions.
  • Use relative formula masses and a provided ANY symbol equation to show that mass is conserved during a reaction.(HL)
  • Be able to recognise and use the idea that the mass of product formed is directly proportional to the mass of limiting reactant used.
  • Interpret chemical equations quantitatively. and that can product masses(HL)
  • Calculate masses of products or reactants from balanced symbol equations using relative formula masses.(HL)
C3e Percentage yield and atom economy
  1. Understand percentage yield as a way of comparing amount of product made (actual yield) to amount expected (predicted yield):
    • 100% yield means that no product has been lost
    • 0% yield means that no product has been made.
  1. Be able to recognise possible reasons (given experimental details) why the percentage yield of a product is less than 100% for example:
    • loss in filtration
    • loss in evaporation
    • loss in transferring liquids
    • not all reactants react to make product.
  1. Understand atom economy as a way of measuring the amount of atoms that are wasted when manufacturing a chemical:
    • 100% atom economy means that all atoms in the reactant have been converted to the desired product
    • the higher the atom economy the 'greener' the process.
  • Interpretation of simple percentage yield and atom economy data.
  1. Know and use the formula:
    • percentage yield = 100 x actual yield / predicted yield
  1. Explain why an industrial process wants as high a percentage yield as possible, to include:(HL)
    • a) reducing the reactants wasted
    • b) reducing cost.
  1. Know and use the formula:
    • % atom economy = 100 × Mr of desired products / sum of Mr of all products
  • Calculate atom economy when given balanced symbol equation (1:1 molar ratio) and appropriate relative formula masses.
  • Calculate atom economy when given ANY balanced symbol equation and appropriate relative formula masses.(HL)
  1. Explain why an industrial process wants as high an atom economy as possible:(HL)
    • to reduce the production of unwanted products
    • to make the process more sustainable.
  • Interpret complex percentage yield and atom economy data.
C2f Energy
  • Know that an exothermic reaction is one in which energy is transferred into the surroundings (releases energy).
  • Know that an endothermic reaction is one in which energy is taken from the surroundings (absorbs energy).
  • Be able to recognise exothermic and endothermic reactions using temperature changes.
  1. Describe, using a diagram, a simple calorimetric method for comparing the energy transferred in combustion reactions:
    • use of spirit burner or a bottled gas burner
    • heating water in a copper calorimeter
    • measuring the temperature change
    • fair tests.
  • Interpret and use data from simple calorimetric experiments related to the combustion of fuels to compare which fuel releases the most energy.
  • Know bond making as an exothermic process and bond breaking as an endothermic process.
  • Explain why a reaction is exothermic or endothermic using the energy changes that occur during bond breaking and bond making.(HL)
  1. Describe a simple calorimetric method for comparing the energy transferred per gram of fuel combusted:
    • use of spirit burner or a bottled gas burner
    • heating water in a copper calorimeter
    • measuring mass of fuel burnt
    • measuring temperature change
    • fair and reliable tests.
  1. Calculate the energy transferred by using the formula (no recall needed):
    • energy transferred (in J) = m × c × △T

    • where m = mass of water heated in g
      c = specific heat capacity (4.2 J/g °C)
      △T = temperature change.
  1. Use the formula,
    energy transferred (in J) = m × c × △T to calculate:(HL)

  2. m = mass of water heated in g
    △T = temperature change.
  1. Calculate the energy output of a fuel in J/g by knowing and using the formula:(HL)
    • energy per gram = energy released (in J) / mass of fuel burnt (in g)
C3g Batch or continuous?
  • Describe the differences between a batch and a continuous process. Industrial case studies.
  1. Be able to list the factors that affect the cost of making and developing a pharmaceutical drug:
    • research and testing
    • labour costs
    • energy costs
    • raw materials
    • time taken for development
    • marketing.
  • Explain why pharmaceutical drugs need to be thoroughly tested before they can be licensed for use.
  • Know that the raw materials for speciality chemicals such as pharmaceuticals can be either made synthetically or extracted from plants.
  • Explain why it is important to manufacture pharmaceutical drugs to be as pure as possible.
  • Describe how melting point, boiling point and thin layer chromatography can be used to establish the purity of a compound.
  • Explain why batch processes are often used for the production of pharmaceutical drugs but continuous processes are used to produce chemicals such as ammonia.
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous manufacturing processes given relevant data and information.(HL)
  • Explain why it is often expensive to make and develop new pharmaceutical drugs.
  • Explain why it is difficult to test and develop new pharmaceutical drugs that are safe to use.(HL)
  1. Describe how chemicals are extracted from plant sources:
    • a) crushing
    • b) boiling and dissolving in suitable solvent
    • c) chromatography.
  • Interpret melting point, boiling point and chromatographic data relating to the purity of a substance.
C3h Allotropes of carbon and nanochemistry
  • Appreciate that electronic devices are becoming smaller each year due to the introduction of nanotechnology.
  • Know that nanotubes can be made from Fullerenes which are allotropes of carbon.
  • Explain why diamond, graphite and Buckminster fullerene are all forms of carbon.
  • Recognise the structures of diamond, graphite and Buckminster fullerene.
  1. Know the physical properties of diamond:
    • lustrous, colourless and clear (transparent)
    • hard and has a high melting point
    • insoluble in water
    • does not conduct electricity.
  1. Know the physical properties of graphite:
    • black, lustrous and opaque
    • slippery
    • insoluble in water
    • conducts electricity.
  • Know that nanotubes are used to reinforce graphite in tennis rackets because nanotubes are very strong. colleges has useful worksheets etc).
  • Know that nanotubes are used as semiconductors in electrical circuits.
  • Explain why diamond, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of carbon.
  • Explain, in terms of properties, why diamond is used in cutting tools and jewellery.
  1. Explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why diamond:(HL)
    • does not conduct electricity
    • is hard and has a high melting point.
  1. Explain, in terms of properties, why graphite is used:
    • in pencil leads
    • in lubricants.
  1. Explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why graphite:(HL)
    • conducts electricity
    • is slippery
    • has a high melting point.
  • Explain why diamond and graphite have a giant molecular structure.
  • Predict and explain the properties of substances that have a giant molecular structure.(HL)
  • Explain why fullerenes can be used in new drug delivery systems.
  • Explain how the structure of nanotubes enables them to be used as catalysts.(HL)