GCSE Chemistry C1 (OCR B711): Carbon Chemistry

Year 10 revision topics

Write word equations given the reactants and products.
Recall the formula of:
  • carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
  • oxygen and water.
  • (HL) sulphuric acid
  • sulfur dioxide
  • sodium hydrogencarbonate
  • sodium carbonate
Covalent and Ionic bonds
  • an ionic bond is the attraction between positive ion and a negative ion.
  • a covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons.
  • (HL)
  • Explain how an ionic bond is formed.
  • Explain how a covalent bond is formed.
  • positive ions are formed when atoms lose electrons negative ions are formed when atoms gain electrons
Compound or element?
  • Work out the number of elements in a compound given its formula.
  • Work out the number and type of atoms in a formula with no brackets.
  • Work out if a particle is an atom, molecule or ion given its formula.
  • Atoms contain smaller particles one of which is a negative electron
Fossil Fuels
  • What are fossil fuels and how are they used?
  • How are fossil fuels extracted and what problems do we face as we use them?
  • Meaning of non-renewable
  • What can be made from crude oil and how can the different chemicals be separated out from crude oil.

  • Fractional distillation works because of differences in boiling points.
  • LPG, petrol, diesel, parafin, heating oil, fuel oils and bitumen are fractions obtained from crude oil.
  • LPG contains propane and butane gases

  • crude oil is heated
  • the fractionating column is colder at the top and hotter at the bottom
  • fractions with low boiling points 'exit' from the top, with high boiling points 'exit' at the bottom.
  • needs a catalyst and a high temperature
  • converts large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones that are more useful
  • petrol from liquid paraffin.
  • converts large alkane molecules into smaller
  • alkane and alkene molecules
  • alkene molecules can be used to make polymers.
  • polymerisation
  • (HT)how do intermolecular forces lead to the difference in boiling points.
  • (HT) which fractions are most useful/most in demand as a lead in to the next lesson on cracking
  • How oil companies change the amount of product in each fraction to meet the demands of society.
  • Use of the different products particularly ethene.
  • (HL) why each fraction is not necessarily as useful and why petrol is so useful.
  • Which properties of a fuel make it suitable for its use?
  • Energy value, availability, storage ,cost, toxicity, pollution eg acid rain, greenhouse effect, ease of use
  • The complete and incomplete combustion of a fossil fuel. The pros and cons of each.
  • Bunsen Flame - blue, yellow flame
  • (HL) balance an unbalanced symbol using 2, 1.5 and 1 in front of the oxygen to show how reducing the oxygen can change the products
  • Incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel makes carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) and water.
  • Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas.
  • Write word equations to show the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel given the reactants and products. (HT - balance it)
The atmosphere
  • The present day composition of the atmosphere and how this composition came about from the volcanic gases released into the original atmosphere.
  • Air =21% O, 78% N, H2O,CO2
  • Photosynthesis, respiration combustion affect the level of CO2, O in air.
  • O, N, CO2 levels in present day atmosphere are constant.
  1. Volcanoes → atmosphere rich in water and C02
  2. condensed water vapour form oceans
  3. Dissolve carbon dioxide in ocean
  4. Increase of N - due to its lack of reactivity
  5. Development of plants
  6. Increase in oxygen levels due to photosynthesis
Atmospheric pollutants
  • Understand where atmospheric pollutants originate from and why they are dangerous.
  • carbon monoxide - a poisonous gas formed by incomplete combustion of petrol or diesel in car engines
  • oxides of nitrogen make photochemical smog and acid rain and are formed in the internal combustion engine
  • sulphur dioxide - causes acid rain that will kill plants, erode stonework and corrode metals and is formed when sulfur impurities in fossil fuels burn.
  • catalytic converter removes carbon monoxide from car exhaust.

  • (HL) know the balanced symbol equation for a catalytic converter 2CO + 2NO → N2 + 2CO2
  • What a hydrocarbon is, the structures of alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons.
  • (HL) use the molymods to show that the structure of the hydrocarbons is not in two dimensions but is actually in 3D.
  • Many polymers are non-biodegradable and so will not decay or decompose by bacterial action.
  • Waste polymers can be disposed of: use of land-fill sites, burning of waste polymers, recycling.
  • Structures of alkenes = unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • How addition polymers are made from monomers, Understand the structure of polymers and how to name them.
  • Large molecules, called polymers are made when many small molecules, called monomers, join together in a polymerisation reaction.
  • Alkenes have a double covalent bond(s) between carbon atoms. Double bonds involve two shared pairs of electrons
  • The double bond is shown by the reaction with bromine water orange to decolourised.
  • Draw the displayed formula of an addition polymer given the displayed formula of its monomer.
  • Understand the properties of polymers that allow them to be used for specific purposes.
  • Gore-Tex®, Nylon
  • Nylon is tough, lightweight, keeps water out and keeps uv light out but does not let water vapour through it which means that sweat condenses
  • Gore-tex® has all of the properties of nylon but is also breathable.
  • Be aware of the problems posed by plastics especially in their disposal: non-biodegradable
  • Nylon laminated with ptfe / polyurethane membrane
  • Holes in membrane are too small for water to pass through but are big enough for water vapour to pass through
  • Membrane is too fragile on its own and so is combined with nylon
  • Plastics are held together by strong covalent bonds.
  • Relate the properties of plastics to simple models of their structure
  • Understand the changes that occur in foods when they are cooked and that some foods have additives to enhance taste/colour etc.
    A chemical change (cooking) takes place if:
  1. There is a new substance made
  2. The process is irreversible
  3. An energy change takes place.
  • Antioxidants stop foods from reacting with oxygen
  • Food colours give food an improved colour
  • Flavour enhancers improve the flavour of a food
  • Emulsiers help oil and water to mix and not separate.
  • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of emulsifying agents
  • Understand the action of heat on baking powder.
  • baking powder helps make cakes rise.
  • CO2 turns lime water cloudy.
  • egg or meat changes when cooked - shape of protein molecules changed.
  • Potato is easier to digest if it is cooked
    Word equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate
  • 'sodium carbonate + CO2 + water
  • 2NAHCO3→ NA2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
  • Make a range of esters and research their uses.
  • that alcohols react with acids to make an ester + water.
  • Perfumes evaporates easily,non-toxic, does not react with water, does not irritate the skin, insoluble in water.
  • Which liquids are solvents for nail varnish
  • Describe different views on cosmetic testing on animals.
  • Understand the terms solvent, solute, solution, soluble and insoluble
  • Paints are colloids and the different parts of a paint.
  • What happens when paint dry
  • The properties and some uses of thermochromic paints
  • The properties and some uses of phosphorescent paints
  • Describe how paints dry
  • emulsion paints = water based paints that dry when the water evaporates.
  • oil paints dry when the solvent evaporates, the oil is oxidised by oxygen
    Ingredients of a paint:
  • solvent thins the paint and makes it easier to spread
  • binding medium sticks the pigment in the paint to the surface
  • Pigment is the substance that gives the paint its colour.

  • oil paints: have the pigment dispersed in an oil
  • paint = colloid where the particles are dispersed with particles of a liquid but are not dissolved.

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