GCSE Chemistry C1 (OCR B711): Carbon Chemistry
Year 10 revision topics
FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL CONCEPTS
Write word equations given the reactants and products.
Recall the formula of:
- carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
- oxygen and water.
- (HL) sulphuric acid
- sulfur dioxide
- sodium hydrogencarbonate
- sodium carbonate
Covalent and Ionic bonds
- an ionic bond is the attraction between positive ion and a negative ion.
- a covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons.
- Explain how an ionic bond is formed.
- Explain how a covalent bond is formed.
- positive ions are formed when atoms lose electrons negative ions are formed when atoms gain electrons
Compound or element?
- Work out the number of elements in a compound given its formula.
- Work out the number and type of atoms in a formula with no brackets.
- Work out if a particle is an atom, molecule or ion given its formula.
- Atoms contain smaller particles one of which is a negative electron
C1A MAKING CRUDE OIL USEFUL
- What are fossil fuels and how are they used?
- How are fossil fuels extracted and what problems do we face as we use them?
- Meaning of non-renewable
What can be made from crude oil and how can the different chemicals be separated out from crude oil.
- Fractional distillation works because of differences in boiling points.
- LPG, petrol, diesel, parafin, heating oil, fuel oils and bitumen are fractions obtained from crude oil.
- LPG contains propane and butane gases
- crude oil is heated
- the fractionating column is colder at the top and hotter at the bottom
- fractions with low boiling points 'exit' from the top, with high boiling points 'exit' at the
- needs a catalyst and a high temperature
- converts large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones that are more useful
- petrol from liquid paraffin.
- converts large alkane molecules into smaller
- alkane and alkene molecules
- alkene molecules can be used to make polymers.
- (HT)how do intermolecular forces lead to the difference in boiling points.
- (HT) which fractions are most useful/most in demand as a lead in to the next lesson on cracking
How oil companies change the amount of product in each fraction to meet the demands of society.
- Use of the different products particularly ethene.
- (HL) why each fraction is not necessarily as useful and why petrol is so useful.
- Which properties of a fuel make it suitable for its use?
- Energy value, availability, storage ,cost, toxicity, pollution eg acid rain, greenhouse effect, ease of use
- The complete and incomplete combustion of a fossil fuel. The pros and cons of each.
- Bunsen Flame - blue, yellow flame
- (HL) balance an unbalanced symbol using 2, 1.5 and 1 in front of the oxygen to show how reducing the oxygen can change the products
- Incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel makes carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) and water.
- Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas.
- Write word equations to show the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel given the reactants and products. (HT - balance it)
- The present day composition of the atmosphere and how this composition came about from the volcanic gases released into the original atmosphere.
- Air =21% O, 78% N, H2O,CO2
- Photosynthesis, respiration combustion affect the level of CO2, O in air.
- O, N, CO2 levels in present day atmosphere are constant.
- Volcanoes → atmosphere rich in water and C02
- condensed water vapour form oceans
- Dissolve carbon dioxide in ocean
- Increase of N - due to its lack of reactivity
- Development of plants
- Increase in oxygen levels due to photosynthesis
- Understand where atmospheric pollutants originate from and why they are dangerous.
- carbon monoxide - a poisonous gas formed by incomplete combustion of petrol or diesel in car engines
- oxides of nitrogen make photochemical smog and acid rain and are formed in the internal combustion engine
- sulphur dioxide - causes acid rain that will kill plants, erode stonework and corrode metals and is formed when sulfur impurities in fossil fuels burn.
- catalytic converter removes carbon monoxide from car exhaust.
(HL) know the balanced symbol equation for a catalytic converter
2CO + 2NO → N2 + 2CO2
- What a hydrocarbon is, the structures of alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons.
- (HL) use the molymods to show that the structure of the hydrocarbons is not in two dimensions but is actually in 3D.
- Many polymers are non-biodegradable and so will not decay or decompose by bacterial action.
- Waste polymers can be disposed of: use of land-fill sites, burning of waste polymers, recycling.
- Structures of alkenes = unsaturated hydrocarbons.
- How addition polymers are made from monomers, Understand the structure of polymers and how to name them.
- Large molecules, called polymers are made when many small molecules, called monomers, join together in a polymerisation reaction.
- Alkenes have a double covalent bond(s) between carbon atoms. Double bonds involve two shared pairs of electrons
- The double bond is shown by the reaction with bromine water orange to decolourised.
- Draw the displayed formula of an addition polymer given the displayed formula of its monomer.
- Understand the properties of polymers that allow them to be used for specific purposes.
- Gore-Tex®, Nylon
Nylon is tough, lightweight, keeps water out and keeps uv light out but does not let water vapour through it which means that sweat condenses
- Gore-tex® has all of the properties of nylon but is also breathable.
- Be aware of the problems posed by plastics especially in their disposal: non-biodegradable
- Nylon laminated with ptfe / polyurethane membrane
- Holes in membrane are too small for water to pass through but are big enough for water vapour to pass through
- Membrane is too fragile on its own and so is combined with nylon
- Plastics are held together by strong covalent bonds.
- Relate the properties of plastics to simple models of their structure
C1F COOKING AND FOOD ADDITIVES
Understand the changes that occur in foods when they are cooked and that some foods have additives to enhance taste/colour etc.
A chemical change (cooking) takes place if:
- There is a new substance made
- The process is irreversible
- An energy change takes place.
- Antioxidants stop foods from reacting with oxygen
- Food colours give food an improved colour
- Flavour enhancers improve the flavour of a food
- Emulsiers help oil and water to mix and not separate.
- Hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of emulsifying agents
- Understand the action of heat on baking powder.
- baking powder helps make cakes rise.
- CO2 turns lime water cloudy.
- egg or meat changes when cooked - shape of protein molecules changed.
- Potato is easier to digest if it is cooked
Word equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate
- 'sodium carbonate + CO2 + water
- 2NAHCO3→ NA2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
- Make a range of esters and research their uses.
- that alcohols react with acids to make an ester + water.
- Perfumes evaporates easily,non-toxic, does not react with water, does not irritate the skin, insoluble in water.
- Which liquids are solvents for nail varnish
- Describe different views on cosmetic testing on animals.
- Understand the terms solvent, solute, solution, soluble and insoluble
- Paints are colloids and the different parts of a paint.
- What happens when paint dry
- The properties and some uses of thermochromic paints
- The properties and some uses of phosphorescent paints
- Describe how paints dry
- emulsion paints = water based paints that dry when the water evaporates.
- oil paints dry when the solvent evaporates, the oil is oxidised by oxygen
Ingredients of a paint:
- solvent thins the paint and makes it easier to spread
- binding medium sticks the pigment in the paint to the surface
- Pigment is the substance that gives the paint its colour.
- oil paints: have the pigment dispersed in an oil
- paint = colloid where the particles are dispersed with particles of a liquid but are not dissolved.